1.  Chang S, Waid E. Zheng B, Matinec DV, & Swanström LL (2008) Impacts of verbal feedback on laparoscopic team performance. 
​ Surgical Innovation, 15(2): 143-7.
2.  Swanström LL & Zheng B (2008) Spatial Orientation and Off-Axis Challenges for NOTES. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North
​ America. 18(2):315-24.
3.  Zheng B, Taylor MD & Swanström LL (2008) An observation on surgery-related activities between surgeon and nurse during
  laparoscopic surgery. The America Journal of Surgery 197(4):497-502.
4.  Zheng B, Martinec DV, Cassera MA & Swanström LL (2008) A quantitative study of disruption in the operating room during
  laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery. Surgical Endoscopy. 22(10): 2171-7.


1.  Zheng B, Denk PM, Matinec DV, Gatta P, Whitford MH & Swanström LL (2007) Building an efficient surgical team using a bench model 
  simulation: construct validity of the legacy inanimate system for endoscopic team training (LISETT), Surgical Endoscopy, 22(4): 930-7.
2.  Zheng B, Swanström LL & MacKenzie CL (2007) A laboratory study on anticipatory movement in laparoscopic Surgery: a behavioral
​ indicator for team collaboration. Surgical Endoscopy 21(6): 935-40.
3.  Zheng B, & Swanström LL (2007) Systems approach to reduce surgical Errors: principle and application [in Chinese]. National Medical
  Journal of China, 87(11): 786-789.
4.  2007 Conference Paper: Zheng B & MacKenzie CL (2007)  Kinematics of reaching and grasping with a tool. In: The Proceedings of
​ 51st. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting 1353-1357.
5.  Zheng B & MacKenzie CL (2007) The control strategy for degrees of freedom in remote prehension with a tool. In: The Proceedings of
​ 51st. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting 1358-1362.


1.  Zheng B, Kuang AB, Henigman F, Payandeh S, Lomax AJ, Swanström LL & MacKenzie CL (2006) Effects of assembling virtual 
​ fixtures on learning a navigation task. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 119:586-91. 2006.

1.  Zheng B, Verjee F, & MacKenzie CL (2005) One brain or two: video analysis of an endoscopic cutting task performed by one versus 
​ two operators. Surgical Endoscopy 19(10):1388-95.


1.  Kuang AB, Payandeh S, Zheng B, Henigman F & MacKenzie CL (2004) Assembling virtual fixtures for guidance in training 
​ environments. HAPTICS, 367-74.


1.  Zheng B, Janmohamed Z, MacKenzie CL (2003) Reaction time and the decision-making process in endoscopic surgery. Surgical 
​ Endoscopy, 17(9):1475-8.
2.  ​2003 Conference Paper: Janmohamed Z, Zheng B & MacKenzie CL (2003) Aiming with the hand touching the target: the role of
​ proprioceptive information between hands. In: The Proceedings of the 34th Association of Canadian Ergonomists Annual Conference,
​ October 15, 2003, London, Ontario (4 pages)


  1. Spaun GO, Zheng B, Martinec DV, Arnold BN, Swanström LL (2010) A comparison of early learning curves for complex bimanual coordination with open, laparoscopic, and flexible endoscopic instrumentation. Surgical Endoscopy 24(9):2145-55. pdf.
  2. Zheng B, Cassera MA, Martinec DV, Spaun GO & Swanström LL (2010) Measuring mental workload during the performance of advanced laparoscopic tasks. Surgical Endoscopy. 24(1):45-50. pdf.
  3. Zheng B, Hur HC, Johnson S Swanström LL (2010) Validity of Using Fundamental Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) Program to Assess Laparoscopic Competence for Gynecologists. Surgical Endoscopy. 24(1):152-60. pdf. ​
  4. Conference Paper: Tien G, Atkins MS, Zheng B, Swindells C (2010) Measuring situation awareness of surgeons in laparoscopic training. In Proceedings of Eye Tracking Research and Applications. 2010:149-152.



 1.  Cassera MA, Zheng B, Martinec DV, Swanström LL (2009). Surgical time independently affected by surgical team size, The America 
​ Journal of Surgery 198(2):216-22.
2.  Martinec DV, Gatta P, Zheng B, Denk PM, Swanström LL (2009) Tradeoff between flexibility and maneuverability: task performance
​ with articulating laparoscopic instruments. Surgical Endoscopy, 23          (12): 2697-2701.
3.  Spaun GO, Zheng B, Swanström LL (2009) A multitasking platform for NOTES; a bench top comparison of a new device for flexible
​ endoscopic surgery and a standard dual channel endoscope, Surgical Endoscopy. 23 (12):2720-7.
4.  Spaun GO, Zheng B, Martinec DV, Cassera MA, Dunst CM, Swanström LL.(2009) Bimanual coordination in NOTES: Comparing
​ conventional dual-channel endoscope, the R-scope and a novel direct drive system. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (GIE), 69(6):e39-45.
5.  Zheng B, Swanström LL (2009) Video analysis of anticipatory movements performed by the surgeons during laparoscopic procedures.
​ Surgical Endoscopy, 23(7):1494-8.
6.  ​2009 Conference Paper: Zheng B & MacKenzie CL (2009)  A comparison of human performance in grasping virtual objects by hand
​ and with tools of different length ratios. In: The Proceedings of 53rd. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting 1156-
​ 1160.


 1. Hur HC, Arden D, Dodge LE, Zheng B, Ricciotti HA (2011) Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery: A surgical skills assessment tool in 
​ gynecology. Journal of Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons (JSLS) 15:21-26.
2. Tien G, Zheng B, Atkins MS, (2011) Quantifying surgeon’s vigilance during laparoscopic operations using eye-tracking. Studies in
  Health Technology and Informatics 126:658-62
3. Zheng B, Swanström LL, Meneghetti A, Panton ON, Qayumi AK (2011) Quantifying surgeon's contribution to team effectiveness on a
  mixed team with a junior surgeon. Surgery.149(6):761-5.
4. Zheng B, Tien G, Atkins SM, Meneghetti AT, Qayumi AK & Panton ONM (2011) Surgeon’s vigilance in the operating room. American
  Journal of Surgery, 201(5):667-71.
5. Zheng B, Cassera MA, Swanström LL, Meneghetti AT, Panton ONM & Qayumi AK (2011) Maintain forward view of the surgical site for
​ best endoscopic practice. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 126:743-8


 1. Atkins MS, Jiang X, Tien G, Meneghetti A, Zheng B (2012) Saccadic delays on targets while watching videos. In Proceedings of the
Eye Tracking Research and Applications (ETRA); 2012; 405-409.
2. Cassera MA, Zheng B, Swanström LL (2012) Data-based self-study guidelines for the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS)
  examination, Surgical Endoscopy 26(12):3426-9.
3. Cassera MA, Zheng B, Spaun GO & Swanström LL, (2012)  Optimizing surgical approach for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic
  procedures, Surgical Innovation, 19(4):433-7.
4. Khan RS, Tien G, Atkins MS, Zheng B, Panton ON, Meneghetti AT (2012) Analysis of eye gaze: Do novice surgeons look at the same
  location as expert surgeons during a laparoscopic operation Surgical Endoscopy. 26(12):3536-40.
5. Meneghetti AT, Pachev G, Zheng B, OMN Panton, Qayumi K (2012),Objective Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills: Dual-Task
  Approach, Surgical Innovation, 19(4):452-9.
6. Qayumi AK, Donn S, Zheng B, Young L. Dutton J. Adamack M. Cheng A. (2012) BC Interprofessional Model for Simulation in
  Interprofessional Health Education: A Network of Simulation Sites, Simulation in Healthcare, 2012 7(5): 295-307.
7. Zheng B, Jiang X, Tien G, Meneghetti AT, OMN Panton, Atkins MS (2012). Workload assessment of surgeons: correlation between
  NASA TLX and blinks. Surgical Endoscopy.26(10): 2746-50.
8. Zheng B, Panton ONM, Al-Tayeb TA, Meneghetti, AT, Qayumi AK, Panton ONM (2012) Impact of Surgical Team Size on
  Intraoperative Performance: Data from 2 Canada Hospitals, Canadian Journal of Surgery, 55(6):371-6.
9. Zheng B, Erwin R, Cassera MA, Lee Gynsung, Martinec DV, Panton ONM, Park A. Swanström LL. (2012) Quantifying Mental
  Workloads of Surgeons in Performing NOTES Procedures, Surgical Endoscopy, 26(5):1352–8.
10. Tien G, Atkins MS, Zheng B (2012) Measuring gaze overlap on videos between multiple observers. In
​ Proceedings of the Eye Tracking Research and Applications (ETRA); 2012; 309-312.


 ​1. Atkins MS, Tien G, Khan RS, Meneghetti A, Zheng B. What do surgeons see: capturing and synchronizing eye gaze for surgery 
applications. Surg Innov. 2013;20(3):241-8
​ 2.Gierl MJ, Lai H, Fung K, & Zheng B. Developing and evaluating methods to automatically generate items in multiple languages. in the
  Proceedings of National Council on Measurement in Education, San Francisco Apr. 28, 2013  (PDF available after publication)
3. Jiang X, Tien G, Huang D, Zheng B, Atkins MS..Capturing and evaluating blinks from video-based eyetrackers Behav Res Methods.
4. Jiang X, Zheng B, Tien G, Atkins MS. Pupil response to precision in surgical task execution. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2013;184:210-4
5. Tien G, Atkins MS, Jiang X, Khan RS, Zheng B. Identifying eye gaze mismatch during laparoscopic surgery. Stud Health Technol Inform.
6. ​Zheng B, Jiang X, Tien G, Bednairk R, Atkins Ms, Gaze Characteristics in Video Watching: Loss of Visual Guidance (PDF available after
​ publication)


  1. He W, Ni S, Chen G, Jiang X, Zheng B. The composition of surgical teams in the operating room and its impact on surgical team performance in China. 2014 May;28(5):1473-8. pdf
  2. Jiang X, Zheng B, Atkins MS. Video Processing to Locate the Tooltip Position in Surgical Eye-Hand Coordination Tasks.   Surgical Innovation, 2014 Jul 21. .pdf
  3. Jiang XT, Atkins MS, Tien G, Bednarik R, Zheng B, “Pupil Responses during Discrete Goal-directed Movements”, Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2075-2084, 2014) (Best of CHI Paper Honorable Mention Award). pdf
  4. ​Jiang XT, Zheng B, Tien G, Bednarik R, Atkins MS, “Pupil Dilations during Target-pointing Respect Fitts' Law”, Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, 175-182 (2014). pdf
  5. Qayumi AK, Pachev G, Zheng B, Ziv A, Koval V, Badiei S, Cheng A (2014), Status of Simulation in Healthcare Education: an international survey, Advances in medical education and practice. 28;5:457-67.  pdf
  6. Tien G, Atkins MS, Jiang X. Bednarik R. Zheng B. Verbal gaze instruction matches visual gaze guidance in laparoscopic skills training, Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, 331-334 (2014) .pdf 
  7. Zheng B, Fu B, Al-Tayeb TA, Hao YF, Qayumi AK. Mastering Instruments before Operating on a patient: The Role of Simulation Training in Tool Use Skills. Surg Innov. 2014 May 12. pdf
  8. Zheng B, Fung E, Fu B, Panton N, Swanström LL (2014) Surgical Team Composition differs between Laparoscopic and Open Procedures. Surgical Endoscopy, Accepted for publication. Oct 01, 2014.  pdf


  1. Cifuentes J, Yao Y, Yan M. Zheng B, (2020) Blood Transfusion prediction using Boltzmann machines. Computer Methods in Biomechanical and Biomedical Engineering. Epub ahead of print, doi: 10.1080/10255842.2020.1742709. pdf
  2. Seal FB, He W, Sanchez Y & Zheng, B (2020). Training of laparoscopic novices both individually and in dyads using a simulation task. Journal of Robotic Surgery. 14(1):29-33,doi: 10.1007/s11701-019-00927-0. pdf


  1. Zhang Z., Zheng B., Liu N., Ge H., Hong Y. (2019) Mechanical power normalized to predicted body weight as a predictor of mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, Intensive Care Medicine, in press 2019 Jan 18. doi: 10.1007/ s00134-019-05627-9 pdf
  2. He W., Simon B.,Kroeker K., Basu A., Birch D., Zheng B. (2019) Eye gaze of endoscopists during simulated colonoscopy, Journal of Robotic Surgery, in press 2019 March 23. doi: 10.1007/s11701-019-00950-1 pdf
  3. Seal F., He W., Pinzon D., Zheng B. (2019) Training of laparoscopic novice both individually and in dyads using a simulation task, Journal of Robotic Surgery, in press 2019 Jan 18. doi: 10.1007/s11701-019-00927-0 pdf
  4. Yao Y, Cifuentes J, Zheng B, Yan M. (2019) Computer Algorithm can match physician’s decision about blood transfusion. Journal of Translational Medicine.17(1):340. doi: 10.1186/s12967-019-2085-y pdf


  1. Xianta Jiang, Bin Zheng , Roma  Bednarik, M. Stella Atkins. Pupil responses to continuous aiming movements. In International Journal of Human - Computer Studies. November 2015 83:1-11 Language: English. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2015.05.006. pdf
  2. Bogdanova R, Boulanger P, Zheng B. Three-Dimensional Eye Tracking in a Surgical Scenario. Surg Innov. 2015 Feb 23. pii: 1553350615573581. pdf
  3. Zheng B, Jiang X, Atkins MS. Detection of Changes in Surgical Difficulty: Evidence From Pupil Responses. Surgical innovation 2015. pdf
  4. Jiang XT, Zheng B, Atkins MS,  (2014) Video processing to locate the tooltip position in surgical eye-hand coordination tasks. Surgical Innovation, 2014 July 21. pdf
  5. Zheng B, Wang XL (2015) SSRL Surgical Simulation Practice and Guideline, Chinese Journal of Pediatrical Surgery, 36(8): 638-40 pdf


  1. Zheng B, Wang XL, Zheng YX, Feng JX (2018) 3D-printed model improves clinical assessment of surgeons on anatomy, Journal of Robotic Surgery, in press (accepted: April 16, 2018, doi: 10.1007/s11701-018-0809-2. [Epub ahead of print]) . pdf
  2. Law BHY, Cheung PY, Wagner M, van OsS, Zheng B, Schmolzer G (2018) Analysis of neonatal resuscitation using eye tracking: a pilot study. Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition 103(1):F82-F84. pdf
  3. ​Bao B, He W, Zheng B (2018) Performance of single versus two operators in laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery 2018: 2(1) 1-4.  pdf
  4. Wang T., Zheng B., (2018) 3D presentation in surgery: a review of technology and adverse effects, Journal of Robotic Surgery, in press 2018 Dec 06. doi: 10.1007/s11701-018-00900-3 pdf
  5. Lees MC, Zheng B, Daniels LM, White JS (2018) Factors Affecting the Development of Confidence Among Surgical Trainees, Journal of Surgical Education, In press Nov 23,2018. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2018.10.016. [Epub ahead of print] pdf
  6. Sanchez Y. Wilson-Keates B. Conway A. Zheng B (2018) Gaze performance adjustment during needle stick application: Can we reduce harm? Nurse Educator, 44(2):E1-E5 pdf
  7. Lees MC, Zheng B, Daniels LM, White JS (2018) Factors Affecting the Development of Confidence Among Surgical Trainees, ICRE 2018 Top Paper, International Conference on Residency Education, Oct 18-20, Halifax, Nova Scotial


  1. Wang X, Watts I, Zheng B. (2017) Mapping three-dimensional digital model to surgical site in facial surgery. Digital Medicine 2017;3:39-42 pdf​​
  2. ​Sun X, Byrns S, Cheng I, Zheng B, Basu A. (2017) Smart Sensor-Based Motion Detection System for Hand Movement Training in Open Surgery, Journal of Medical System, 41(2):24. pdf
  3. Zhang XY, Zheng YX, Zheng B. ( 2017 )Define interior structure for better liver segmentation based on CT images. CCCV (Chinese Conference in Computer Vision) 2017: Computer Vision, pp 77-88, part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science (CCIS, Volume 771), conference paper, Tianjin, China, October 11–14, 2017. pdf​​
  4. Zawartka M, Wang J. Zheng B (2017) Three basic steps for Applying Digital Images to Oral and Facial Surgery. Chinese Journal for Dental Research 2016;19(4):185-189 pdf
  5. Solevag AL, Cheung PY, Li E, Aziz K, O’Reilly M, Fu B, Zheng B, Schmolzer G (2017) Quantifying force application to a newborn manikin during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Journal of Maternal-Fatal & Neonatoal Medicine. 2016;29 (11):1770-2. ​pdf


  1. Hajari N, Cheng I, Zheng B, Basu A. Determining team cognition from delay analysis using cross recurrence plot. 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC’16) Orlando, FL, USA 
  2. Kottayil NK, Bogdanova R. Cheng I, Cheng I, Zheng B, Basu A. Investigation of gaze patterns in multiview laparoscopic surgery. 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBC’16 Orlando, FL, USA Navaneeth-multiple-view-EMBC2016.pdf
  3. Furtado AC, Cheng I, Fung E, Zheng B, Basu A. Low resolution tool tracking for microsurgical training. 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBC’16 Orlando, FL, USA Furtado-tool-microsurgery-EMBC2016.pdf
  4. Chow G, Chiu CJ, Zheng B, Panton ON, Meneghetti AT (2016) Rigid versus articulatation for task completion in single port surgery, American Journal of Surgery 211(5):903-7​.pdf
  5. Zheng YX, Yu DF, ZhaoJG, Wu YL, Zheng B (2016) 3D Printout models vs. 3D-Rendered Images: Which is better for preoperative planning. Surgical Education 73(3):518-23. pdf
  6. Solevag AL, Cheung PY, Li E, Aziz K, O’Reilly M, Fu B, Zheng B, Schmolzer G (2016) Quantifying force application to a newborn manikin during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Journal of Maternal-Fatal & Neonatoal Medicine. 2016;29 (11):1770-2.  pdf
  7.  He W, Zheng B. Collaborative performance in laparoscopic teams: behavioral evidences from simulation. Surg Endosc. 2016 Feb 19. pdf
  8. Pinzon D, Byrns S, Zheng B. Prevailing Trends in Haptic Feedback Simulation for Minimally Invasive Surgery. Surg Innov. 2016 Feb 2. pii: 1553350616628680. pdf
  9. Sanchez Y, Pinzon D, Zheng B. Reaction time for processing visual stimulus in a computer-assisted rehabilitation environment. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology. 2016 Dec 7. pdf
  10. Zheng B, Jiang X, Bednarik R, Atkins MS. Gaze Characteristics of Video Watching in a Surgical Setting. 2016. pdf
  11. Pinzon D, Vega R, Sanchez YP, Zheng B. Skill learning from kinesthetic feedback. The American Journal of Surgery (2016) pdf
  12. Zawartka M, Wang J. Zheng B (2017) Three basic steps for Applying Digital Images to Oral and Facial Surgery. Chinese Journal for Dental Research 2016;19(4):185-189. pdf
surgical simulation research lab